Download    al      Ad Deen Al Ayubi  The Establishment of the Ayubid State PDF
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ISBN 10 : 6035010571
Pages : pages
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Download or read book al Ad Deen Al Ayubi The Establishment of the Ayubid State written by ʻAlī Muḥammad Muḥammad Ṣallābī and published by . This book was released on 2010 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, 1137-1193; Crusades; Syria; history; 750-1260.


Download    al      Ad Deen Al Ayubi  Crusades prior to the rise of the Ayubid state PDF
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ISBN 10 : 6035010571
Pages : pages
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Download or read book al Ad Deen Al Ayubi Crusades prior to the rise of the Ayubid state written by ʻAlī Muḥammad Muḥammad Ṣallābī and published by . This book was released on 2010 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, 1137-1193; Crusades; Syria; history; 750-1260.


Download Rise of ISIS PDF
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Publisher : Simon and Schuster
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ISBN 10 : 9781501105159
Pages : 144 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (11 users)
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Download or read book Rise of ISIS written by Jay Sekulow and published by Simon and Schuster. This book was released on 2014-09-15 with total page 144 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: THE DEFINITIVE BOOK ON ISIS Jay Sekulow, one of America’s most influential attorneys, closely examines the rise of the terrorist groups ISIS and Hamas, explains their objectives and capabilities and how, if left undefeated, their existence could unleash a genocide of historic proportions. Recently, the world has been shaken by gruesome photos and videos that have introduced us to the now infamous terrorist group known as ISIS. The world’s wealthiest and most powerful jihadists, ISIS originated within Al Qaeda with the goal of creating an Islamic state across Iraq and Syria and unrelenting jihad on Christians. Separate from ISIS, the terrorist group Hamas has waged an equally brutal war against Israel. Both groups, if left undefeated, have the potential to unleash a catastrophic genocide. Rise of ISIS gives a better understanding of the modern face of terror,andprovides an overview of the laws of war and war crimes. These laws differentiate between the guilty and innocent, and explain why the US military and the Israeli Defense Forces are often limited in their defensive measures. The authors’ firsthand experience, including multiple appearances before the Office of the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court at The Hague, along with direct contact battling jihadists during operation Iraqi Freedom lends insight into this important geopolitical issue. A must-have for anyone who wants to better understand the conflict that exists in the middle east, this well-researched and fully annotated volume is invaluable in revealing how this new brand of terrorism poses a very real threat to Americans and the world at large. It also serves as a guide to what we as individuals—and as a nation—can do to stop this escalating violence, prevent jihad, and protect Israel and America from this imminent threat.


Download Toleration and Tolerance in Medieval European Literature PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781351001069
Pages : 330 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (51 users)
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Download or read book Toleration and Tolerance in Medieval European Literature written by Albrecht Classen and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2018-03-05 with total page 330 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Toleration and Tolerance in Medieval European Literature aims to examine and unearth the critical investigations of toleration and tolerance presented in literary texts of the Middle Ages. In contrast to previous approaches, this volume identifies new methods of interpreting conventional classifications of toleration and tolerance through the emergence of multi-level voices in literary, religious, and philosophical discourses of authorities in medieval literature. Accordingly, this volume identifies two separate definitions of toleration and tolerance, the former as a representative of a majority group accepts a member of the minority group but still holds firmly to the believe that s/he is right and the other entirely wrong, and tolerance meaning that all faiths, convictions, and ideologies are treated equally, and the majority speaker is ready to accept that potentially his/her position is wrong. Applying these distinct differences in the critical investigation of interaction and representation in context, this book offers new insight into the tolerant attitudes portrayed in medieval literature of which regularly appealed, influenced and shaped popular opinions of the period.


Download The Road to Martyrs  Square PDF
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Publisher : Oxford University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780190294175
Pages : 304 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (92 users)
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Download or read book The Road to Martyrs Square written by Anne Marie Oliver and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2006-04-27 with total page 304 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Don't expect to find here the usual clichés about suicide bombers and what drives them. In this unique study, Anne Marie Oliver and Paul Steinberg render the story of two intertwining, often clashing journeys. The authors lived for six months with a Palestinian refugee family in Gaza at the beginning of the intifada, and offer a gritty, poetic portrait of the time. They also provide an unrivalled documentary of the underground media they collected during the course of six years in the area. Although they could not have surmised as much at the beginning, they soon found themselves led through these media into the world of the suicide bomber. Their early study, notably, anticipated the spread of suicide missions years in advance. Dispensing with the platitudes and dogma that typify discourse on the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the authors show that the suicide bomber is a complex, contradictory construction, and can be explained neither in terms of cold efficacy nor sheer evil. Theirs is the only book on the subject to illustrate the ecstatic, intoxicating aspects of suicide missions, and provide extensive access to materials that have remained largely unseen in the West despite the fact that they have served as indispensable tools in the construction and propagation of the suicide bomber. The book contains 86 illustrations drawn from the authors' archive as well as numerous conversations with leaders and followers of Hamas, including a rare interview with a suicide bomber whose bomb failed to explode on an Israeli bus in Jerusalem. Here is an important and timely work that will challenge the way we think about the intifada, suicide bombers, and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.


Download Don t Panic PDF
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Publisher : Random House Canada
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ISBN 10 : 9780345815873
Pages : 208 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (458 users)
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Download or read book Don t Panic written by Gwynne Dyer and published by Random House Canada. This book was released on 2015-10-13 with total page 208 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: It took a quarter-century of bad strategy, including more than a dozen years of Western air attacks and invasions in the Middle East, to bring the so-called "Islamic State" into existence. Can we somehow manage to avoid the well-trodden path of overreacting to the provocations of Islamist extremists? With the rise of ISIS, a new style of terrorism that publicly gloats over acts of extreme cruelty has reawakened the fears of the global audience. But in Don't Panic, Gwynne Dyer argues that the advent of "Islamic State" and its clones does not substantially raise the risk of major terrorist attacks in Western countries. It does, however, pose a grave threat to the Arab countries of the Middle East. In Don't Panic, Dyer first explains why the Middle East has become the global capital of terrorism. He then examines how terrorist organisations in the Arab world have evolved over time, with particular emphasis on the events of the past fifteen years and the current situation in Syria and Iraq. And in the end Dyer departs from his long-standing position that foreign interventions always make matters worse to argue that a little military intervention of the right kind may avert a genocide in Syria. "When my information changes, I alter my conclusions," said John Maynard Keynes. "What do you do, sir?"


Download Arabian Oasis City PDF
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Publisher : University of Texas Press
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ISBN 10 : 9780292757295
Pages : 284 pages
Rating : 4.2/5 (927 users)
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Download or read book Arabian Oasis City written by Soraya Altorki and published by University of Texas Press. This book was released on 2013-06-06 with total page 284 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Vast social change has occurred in the Middle East since the oil boom of the mid-1970s. As the first anthropological study of an urban community in Saudi Arabia since that oil boom, Arabian Oasis City is also the first to document those changes. Based on extensive interviews and participant observation with both men and women, the authors record and analyze the transformation that has occurred in this ancient oasis city throughout the twentieth century: the creation of the present Saudi Arabian state and of a new national economy based on the export of oil and the economic boom brought about by the dramatic increases in the price of oil following the October 1973 Arab-Israeli War. In addition, the authors reveal the changes brought about by the fall in the price of oil beginning in 1982 and analyze the problems confronting ‘Unayzah in its aftermath. By demonstrating that the area was not exclusively dominated by tribalism and Bedouin nomads, this empirical case study destroys stereotypical views about Saudi Arabia. Indeed, it proves the existence—prior to the coming of the modern Saudi Arabian state— of surplus agricultural and craft production and the full development of local, regional, and long-distance trade networks. It shows that women, although veiled, played active roles in work outside the household. The social impact of change over the years is, however, profound—especially the gradual replacement of the extended family by the nuclear family, changing patterns of husband-wife relationships, the impact of self-earned income on the status of women, and the emergence of a new middle class of employees and entrepreneurs. Because of the high degree of gender segregation in this area of research, Altorki and Cole give us a fortunate collaboration between a Saudi Arabian female scholar and an American male scholar experienced in research in the Middle East.


Download Crossovers PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781351524827
Pages : 206 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (515 users)
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Download or read book Crossovers written by Shlomo Sharan and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2018-02-06 with total page 206 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Crossovers compares Jewish anti-Zionism and Palestinian anti-Semitism from political and philosophical points of view. The authors' goal is to expose what is unique about these phenomena, and what they share, so that both ideologies and their practical impact can be better understood. The authors identify a symbiotic relationship between anti-Semitic Palestinian doctrines and those Jews who are anti-Zionists. There has been a great deal of research on these as separate phenomena, but there has thus far been no research that has noted their similarities. Palestinian anti- Semitism and Jewish anti-Zionism may stem from different sources, but they have similar consequences. Palestinian views derive from religious Islamic as well as nationalist- Arab roots, while the views of anti-Zionist Jews grew out of an ideological-Marxist-Trotskyite background. But both share a common goal: the destruction of the Jewish-Zionist nation, and a common strategy, to achieve a bi-national state as a first stage in the march to this goal. Jewish history is replete with examples of how Jews have ignored repeated threats and acts of violence against them. That characteristic of Jews reflects their Messianic belief, but it lacks a basis in history. That belief has resisted change even in the face of threats that were obvious and that have endangered Jewish lives in the past. Contemporary anti-Zionists share this optimistic outlook. Paradoxically, while the Jewish-Zionist State of Israel contends in public that another Holocaust will not happen and is patently impossible, the lesson of recent Jewish history is that a Holocaust can happen again. This work is unrelenting in its criticisms and tough minded in its assessments of the future. It merits careful, serious reading.


Download Acting Egyptian PDF
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Publisher : University of Texas Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781477319208
Pages : 240 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (773 users)
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Download or read book Acting Egyptian written by Carmen M. K. Gitre and published by University of Texas Press. This book was released on 2019-12-02 with total page 240 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: At the turn of the twentieth century—during the “protectorate” period of British occupation in Egypt—theaters and other performance sites were vital for imagining, mirroring, debating, and shaping competing conceptions of modern Egyptian identity. A central figure in this diverse spectrum was the effendi, an emerging class of urban, male, anti-colonial professionals whose role would ultimately become dominant. Acting Egyptian argues that performance themes, spaces, actors, and audiences allowed pluralism to take center stage while simultaneously consolidating effendi voices. From the world premiere of Verdi’s Aida at Cairo’s Khedivial Opera House in 1869 to the theatrical rhetoric surrounding the revolution of 1919, which gave women an opportunity to link their visibility to the well-being of the nation, Acting Egyptian examines the ways in which elites and effendis, men and women, used newly built performance spaces to debate morality, politics, and the implications of modernity. Through scripts, playbills, ads, and numerous other sources, the book brings to life provocative debates and dissent that fostered a new image of national culture and echoed urban life in the struggle for independence.


Download Is Peaceful Coexistence Possible Between Christians and Muslims  PDF
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Publisher : Grosvenor House Publishing
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ISBN 10 : 9781803812175
Pages : 206 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (38 users)
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Download or read book Is Peaceful Coexistence Possible Between Christians and Muslims written by Samir Moura and published by Grosvenor House Publishing. This book was released on 2022-11-24 with total page 206 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The aim of the book is to examine the possibility for Christians and Muslims of different sects to live side by side in harmony, taking into account the considerable development of the society and sciences since the advent of these two religions. There are many similarities between the Bible and the Quran, as Prophet Muhammad had knowledge of the Bible due to his contacts with the Christian Clergy and Jewish Rabbis. Prophet Muhammad with his logical analytical mind discussed the different interpretations of the Evangels with Christians of different sects and later discussed the Torah with Jewish Rabbis in Yathrib (Medina), and reached certain conclusions that he expressed in a book "revealed" to him in Arabic language where he tried to correct the misinterpretations of the Bible by others, to serve as a guide for his people. An in-depth reading of the Bible and the Quran reveals the difference in Prophet Muhammad's life in Mecca before the death of his first wife Khadija and her uncle the Arian Christian priest Waraka, when he followed the Christian approach in peacefully calling for the belief in a Single God, lead a monogamous life, and after his migration to Medina where he had as neighbours the Jewish Rabbis. Here the lifestyle of Prophet Muhammad witnessed a deep transformation, thereafter emulating that of Israeli Prophets/kings David and Solomon, in his polygamous marriages and his wars to establish an earthly Muslim Arab State, in sharp contrast with the Heavenly Kingdom preached by Jesus Christ. In spite of the "improvements" entered into the Quran over those of the Torah, the Quran remains a constitution that appropriated much of its components from Moses Law. Even if the ideas In the Torah and the Quran were inspired by God, the tools who revealed them to mankind were humane, using the reasoning and language expression capabilities of human imperfect persons, the level of their scientific knowledge and the traditions of their societies. They were written with the level of writing skills of their time, mostly from memories, tens and hundreds of years after the death of Moses, Jesus Christ and Muhammad. Hand copying these scriptures and translating them during centuries, many mistakes must have occurred. The above leads us to conclude that the Bible and the Quran cannot be literally the words of God. Christians and Muslims should strive to interpret the Bible and the Quran basing their interpretation on reason, logic and nowadays scientific knowledge, and where necessary deleting the incorrect insertions. As we cannot accept many rules of Moses's Law, similarly we cannot accept the Quran's Shari'a Law covering wars of conquest in Allah's name, the notion that the Muslim Nation is the best nation, killing the apostate, payment of tribute by non-Muslims, plunder of women, slavery, polygamy, inequality between men and women in tribunals and inheritance, lashing adulterers, cutting hands and feet. Ignorance is the main cause of human misery.


Download Influence Warfare  How Terrorists and Governments Fight to Shape Perceptions in a War of Ideas PDF
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Publisher : ABC-CLIO
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ISBN 10 : 9780313347320
Pages : 392 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (133 users)
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Download or read book Influence Warfare How Terrorists and Governments Fight to Shape Perceptions in a War of Ideas written by James J. F. Forest and published by ABC-CLIO. This book was released on 2009-05-14 with total page 392 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This important work, edited by an expert on terrorism, focuses on the 21st-century struggle for strategic influence and ways in which states can neutralize the role of new media in spreading terrorist propaganda. • Case studies


Download Peace in the Name of Allah PDF
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Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
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ISBN 10 : 9783110730555
Pages : 259 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (17 users)
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Download or read book Peace in the Name of Allah written by Ofir Winter and published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. This book was released on 2022-02-07 with total page 259 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: From Anwar al-Sadat’s dramatic gambit in 1977 to the surprising declaration of the Abraham Accords in 2020, making peace with Israel was always a tough sell for Arab regimes. Through an analysis of hundreds of fatwas, sermons, essays, books, interviews, poems, postage stamps and other media, Peace in the Name of Allah examines how Egyptian, Jordanian, and Emirati political and religious authorities introduced Islamic justifi cations for peace with Israel, and how those opposed countered them. The discussion demonstrates the fl exible and ambiguous nature of revelation-based political discourses; Islam is neither ‘for’ nor ‘against’ peace with Israel – people are, as different Muslim political actors take competing or even contradictory positions.


Download The Gulf Tanker War PDF
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Publisher : Springer
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ISBN 10 : 9781349263042
Pages : 403 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (492 users)
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Download or read book The Gulf Tanker War written by Nadia El-Sayed El-Shazly and published by Springer. This book was released on 2016-07-27 with total page 403 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In the 1984 Tanker War, Iraq used its superiority in airpower as an instrument in naval warfare, in a strategy designed to end combat. Iraq hoped to weaken Iran's economy and internationalize the war to force it to cease fighting, or remove the government; negotiations would follow, with Baghdad in a position of strength. Although the Iran-Iraq War was first and foremost a ground war, an argument can be made that the Tanker War contributed to the 1988 ceasefire.


Download Daily Report  Foreign Radio Broadcasts PDF
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ISBN 10 : OSU:32435063969463
Pages : pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (243 users)
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Download or read book Daily Report Foreign Radio Broadcasts written by United States. Central Intelligence Agency and published by . This book was released on 1965 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt:


Download Companion Encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African Film PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781134662524
Pages : 624 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (346 users)
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Download or read book Companion Encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African Film written by Oliver Leaman and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2003-12-16 with total page 624 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This unique volume illuminates a fascinating area of cinema. Each chapter covers the history and major issues of film within that area, as well as providing bibliographies of the leading films, directors and actors.


Download The Druze Community and the Lebanese State PDF
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Publisher : Routledge
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ISBN 10 : 9781317931737
Pages : 314 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (179 users)
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Download or read book The Druze Community and the Lebanese State written by Yusri Hazran and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2014-07-11 with total page 314 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: One of the fundamental questions of Middle Eastern, and Lebanese studies in particular, is the history of the relationship between the Druze community and the state in modern Lebanon. Arguing that the Druze community has been politically alienated from the Lebanese state, this book explores the historical and political origins of this alienation. The Druze Community and the Lebanese State contends that the origins of this alienation lie in the state’s national ideology, its political confessional system, and the Druze’s historical background during the medieval period. Moreover, this book examines the extent to which the Druze’s attitude vis-à-vis the Lebanese state has been influenced by their historical rivalry with the Maronites. Particular emphasis is placed on the political and ideological practices adopted by the Druze leadership and intelligentsia as they dealt with the changes taking place in their community’s political status following the political settlements of 1920 and 1943 (the establishment of Greater Lebanon and the National Pact, respectively). A welcome addition to existing literature on Lebanon, this book will be an essential reference tool for students and researchers with an interest in nationalism, identity and Middle East Politics more broadly.


Download Press in the Middle East and North Africa  1850 1950 PDF
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Publisher : Edinburgh University Press
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ISBN 10 : 9781474430647
Pages : 304 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (744 users)
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Download or read book Press in the Middle East and North Africa 1850 1950 written by Anthony Gorman and published by Edinburgh University Press. This book was released on 2018-04-30 with total page 304 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: A dynamic, scholarly engagement with Susanne Bier's work